Sunday, May 24, 2020
Definition: The Huaca del Sol is an enormous adobe (mud brick) Moche civilization pyramid, built in at least eight different stages between AD 0-600 at the site of Cerro Blanco in the Moche Valley of the northern coast of Peru. The Huaca del Sol (the name means Shrine or Pyramid of the Sun) is the largest mud-brick pyramid in the American continents; although much eroded today, it still measures 345 by 160 meters and is over 40 meters tall. Extensive looting, the purposeful diversion of the river alongside the Huaca del Sol, and repeated El NiÃ ±o climatic events have impacted the monument over the centuries, but it is still impressive.The area surrounding Huaca del Sol and its sister pyramid Huaca de la Luna was an urban settlement of at least one square kilometer, with midden and rubble deposits up to seven meters thick, from public buildings, residential areas and other architecture buried beneath the floodplains of the Moche River.Huaca del Sol was abandoned after a large flood in AD 560, and it was likely the influence of similar El NiÃ ±o-triggered climate events that did much of the damage to Huaca del Sol.br/>Archaeologists associated with investigations at Huaca del Sol include Max Uhle, Rafael Larco Hoyle, Christopher Donnan, and Santiago Uceda. Sources Moseley, M. E. 1996. Huaca del Sol. Pps 316-318 in Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Brian Fagan, ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Sutter, R. C. and R. J. Cortez 2005 The Nature of Moche Human Sacrifice: A Bio-Archaeological Perspective. Current Anthropology 46(4):521-550. S. Uceda, E. Mujica, and R. Morales. Las Huacas del Sol y de la Luna. This site is a marvelous source of information about the Moche, and has English and Spanish content.This glossary entry is part of the Dictionary of Archaeology.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Christmas is one of the most widely celebrated holidays by people all over the world, but what are the particularities of it in the United States? Who is celebrating it? How are they doing it? How much are they spending? And how might social differences shape our experience of this holiday? Lets dive in. The Cross-Religion and Secular Popularity of Christmas According to Pew Research Centers December 2013 survey about Christmas, we know that the vast majority of people in the U.S. celebrate the holiday. The survey confirms what most of us know: Christmas is both a religious and a secular holiday. Unsurprisingly, about 96 percent of Christians celebrateÃ Christmas, as do a whopping 87 percent of people who are not religious. What may surprise you is that people of other faiths do too. According to Pew, 76 percent of Asian-American Buddhists, 73 percent of Hindus, and 32 percent of Jews celebrate Christmas. News reports indicate that some Muslims also celebrate the holiday. Interestingly, the Pew survey found that Christmas is more likely to be a religious holiday for older generations.Ã While just over a thirdÃ of people ages 18-29 celebrate Christmas religiously, 66 percent of those 65 and older do so. For many Millennials, Christmas is a cultural, rather than a religious, holiday. Popular Christmas Traditions and Trends According to the 2014 National Retail Federations (NRF) survey of planned activities for Christmas Day, the most common things we do are visit with family and friends, open gifts, cook a holiday meal, and sit on our bums and watch television. Pews 2013 survey shows that more than half of us will attend church on Christmas Eve or Day, and the organizations 2014 survey shows that eating holiday foods is the activity that we most look forward to, after visiting with family and friends. Leading up to the holiday, the Pew survey found thatÃ the majority of American adultsÃ¢â¬â65 percentÃ¢â¬âwill send holiday cards, though older adults are more likely than younger adults to do so, and 79 percent of us will put up a Christmas tree, which is slightly more common among higher income earners. Though hurtling through airports at top foot-speed is a popular trope of Christmas movies, in fact, just 5-6 percent of us travel long-distance by air for the holiday, according to the U.S. Department of Transportation. While long-distance travelÃ increases by 23 percent at Christmas time, most of that travel is by car. Similarly, though images of carolers punctuate holiday films, just 16 percent of us join in the activity, according to Pews 2013 survey Studies also show that we are getting engaged, conceiving children, and deciding to get divorced more so on Christmas than during any other time ofÃ the year. How Gender, Age, and Religion Shape Our Christmas Experiences Interestingly, a 2014 survey by Pew found that religious affiliation, gender,Ã marital status, and age have an impact on the extent to which people look forward to theÃ common ways of celebrating Christmas. Those who regularly attend religious services are more enthusiastic on average about Christmas activities than are those who attend less often, or not at all. The only activity that escapes this rule? Americans universally look forward to eating holiday foods. In terms of gender, the survey found that, with the exception of visiting with family and friends, women look forward to the holiday traditions and activities more than men. While the Pew survey did not establish a reason for why this is the case, existing social science suggests that it could be because women spend more time than men do shopping and visiting with or taking care of family members in the context of their everyday lives. Its possible that mundane and taxing chores are more appealing to women when they are surrounded by the Christmas glow. Men, however, find themselves in the position of having to do things that they are not normally expected to do, and so they dont look forward to these events as much as women do. Echoing the fact that Christmas is less of a religious holiday for Millennials than it is for older generations, the 2014 Pew survey results indicate an overall generational shift in how we celebrate the holiday. Americans over the age of 65 are more likely than others to look forward to hearing Christmas music and attending religious services, while those in the younger generations are more likely to look forward to eating holiday foods, exchanging gifts, and decorating their homes. And while the majority of all generations do these things, Millennials are the most likely to buy gifts for others, and the least likely to send Christmas cards (though still a majority do it). ChristmasSpending: Big Picture, Averages, and Trends More thanÃ $665Ã billion is the amount the NRF forecastsÃ Americans will spend during November and December 2016Ã¢â¬âan increase of 3.6 percent over the previous year. So, where will all that money go? Most of it, on average $589, will goÃ to gifts, out of a total $796 that the average person will spend. The rest will be spent onÃ holiday items including candy and food (about $100), decorations (about $50), greeting cards and postage, and flowers and potted plants. As part of that decorative budget, we can expect Americans to collectivelyÃ spend more than $2.2 billion on about 40 million Christmas trees in 2016 (67 percent real, 33 percent fake), according toÃ data from the National Christmas Tree Association. In terms of gift-giving plans, the NRF survey shows American adults intend to buy and give the following: Clothing or accessories (61%)Gift cards or certificates (56%)Media items (books, music, videos, games, etc.) (44%)Toys (42%)Food or candy (31%)Consumer electronics (30%)Personal care or beauty items (25%)Jewelry (21%)Home decor or furnishings (20%)Cash (20%)Sporting goods or leisure items (17%) The plans adults have for gifts for children reveal the stronghold that gender stereotypes still have in American culture. The top five toys that people plan to buy for boys include Lego sets, cars and trucks, video games, Hot Wheels, and Star Wars items. For girls, they plan to buy Barbie items, dolls, Shopkins, Hatchimals, and Lego sets. Given that the average person intends to spend nearly $600 on gifts, its not surprising that nearly half of all American adults feel that exchanging gifts leaves them stretched thin financially (according to Pews 2014 survey). More than a third of us feel stressed out by our countrys gift-giving culture, and nearly a quarter of us believe that it is wasteful. The Environmental Impact Have you ever thought about the environmental impact of all this Christmas cheer? The Environmental Protection Agency reports that household waste increases by more than 25 percent between Thanksgiving and New Years Day, which results in an additional 1 million tons per week going to landfills. Gift wrapping and shopping bags amountÃ to a whoppingÃ 4 million tonsÃ of Christmas-related trash. Then theres all the cards, ribbons, product packaging, and trees too. Though we think of it as a time of togetherness, Christmas is also a time of massive waste. When one considers this and the financial and emotional stress of consumerist gift-giving, perhaps a change of tradition is in order?
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Available online at www. sciencedirect. com Computers in Human Behavior Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 www. We will write a custom essay sample on Impact of the Internet in Our Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now elsevier. com/locate/comphumbeh Impact of the Internet on our lives: Male and female personal perspectives Ann Colley *, John Maltby School of Psychology, University of Leicester, Henry Wellcome Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK Available online 30 October 2007 Abstract Gender di? erences in Internet access and usage have been found in a number of previous investigations. The study reported here extends this work by providing an analysis of the impact of the Internet on menÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. A content analysis of 200 postings from men and 200 from women, on the topic of Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËHas the Internet changed your lifeÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ invited by a news website, was undertaken then examined for gender di? erences. Results showed more womenÃ¢â¬â¢s postings mentioned having made new friends or having met their partner, renewing old friendships, accessing information and advice, studying online, and shopping and booking travel online, while more menÃ¢â¬â¢s postings mentioned that the Internet had helped or given them a career, positive socio-political e? ects, and negative aspects of the technology. The results are interpreted as supporting the view that the Internet represents an extension of broader social roles and interests in the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëo? ineÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ world. O 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Internet; Gender; Gender roles; Gender di? erences 1. Introduction Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËThe Internet is my job, my high street, my supermarket and my international social playgroundÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (Female participant 63). Usage of the Internet continues to increase worldwide. In the UK 57% of households now have access, in comparison to 46% four years ago (National Statistics, 2006). The * Corresponding author. Tel. : +44 (0) 116 229 7188; fax: +44 (0) 116 229 7196. E-mail address: aoc@le. ac. uk (A. Colley). 0747-5632/$ Ã¢â¬â see front matter O 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10. 1016/j. chb. 2007. 09. 002 2006 A. Colley, J. Maltby / Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 Digital Future Project in the US has found that 78. 6% of Americans went online in 2005, with an accompanying increase in the amount of time spent per week on the Internet (Centre for the Digital Future, 2005). A number of factors have been found to relate to access and use, including socioeconomic variables, demographic variables, and education (e. g. Bimber, 2000; Wasserman Richmond-Abbott, 2005). One signi? cant area of research over the last decade has investigated the impact of the Internet upon di? erent social groups and inevitably work on gender di? erences has been at the forefront, with concerns about the presence and impact of a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëgender gapÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ in Internet access and usage. A number of investigators (e. g. Sherman et al. , 2000) have investigated this gender gap in Internet use. Bimber (2000) found gaps in both access and use among US adults, and concluded that, while access di? erences can be accounted for by socioeconomic and other factors that a? ect women and men di? erentially, the gap in use was due at least in part to gender-speci? c factors such as the male stereotype of computers, cultural associations between gender and technology and gendered cognitive and communication preferences. However, there is growing evidence that the gender gap in access is closing or has closed with more women coming online, and that the gap in use of the Internet is still present but may also be closing (e. . Cummings Kraut, 2002; Ono Zavodny, 2003; Wasserman Richmond-Abbott, 2005). There continues to be a gender gap in usage in the UK: the latest ? gures from adults in a nationally representative sample of UK households show that 40% of women had never used the Internet in comparison with 30% of men, and 55% of women had used the Internet within the 3 months prior t o the survey in comparison with 65% of men (National Statistics, 2006). In addition, there are further gaps in the frequency and nature of use that appear to remain (Odell, Korgen, Schumacher, Delucchi, 2000; Ono Zavodny, 2003; Wasserman Richmond-Abbott, 2005). One of the issues that was highlighted early on in investigations of the gender gap, concerns the negative e? ect of the link between the Internet and computer technology. This area grew from work on gender di? erences in computer attitudes and use more generally, which showed more negative computer attitudes (Durndell Thomson, 1997; Whitley, 1997), lower female self-con? dence and higher computer anxiety among females (McIlroy, Bunting, Tierney, Gordon, 2001; Todman, 2000). The possibility raised in the literature was that girls and women were being discouraged from using the Internet because of its delivery via a computer interface, and because of the association of the kinds of operations required to interact with it with traditional masculine technology. Indeed, computer attitudes and Internet attitudes have been found to be linked (Liaw, 2002; Schumacher Morahan-Martin, 2001), and experience using the Internet has been found to predict both (Liaw, 2002). Durndell and Haag (2002) found higher computer self-e? acy, more positive Internet attitudes, longer Internet use and lower computer anxiety among male than female students, and gender was independently linked to Internet experience. Similarly, Joiner et al. (2005) found that a signi? cant relationship between gender and use of the Internet remained, after controlling for Internet identi? cation and Internet anxiety. This may be due to a number of other factors, and Joiner et al. suggest that self- e? cacy and expectancy of success may be fruitful areas to pursue. In addition, it seems that there are di? erential e? cts of experience upon anxiety in using the technology among men and women: Broos (2005) found that experience decreased anxiety among men but had little e? ect for women. Alongside investigations of the gender gap in use of the Internet, there is a growing body of research on di? erences in the use of the Internet for di? erent functions by males A. Colley, J. Maltby / Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 2007 and females. This is a crucial area to pursue in order to understand the gender gap, since amount of use is inextricably linked to the functions erformed and the bene? ts of them for an individual. The number of potential functions of the Internet is very substantial and the activities are diverse. The current top Internet activities in the US are e-mail (top), general sur? ng, access to news, shopping, reading entertainment news, ? nding i nformation about hobbies, online banking, accessing medical information, instant messaging and accessing information about and booking travel (Center for the Digital Future, 2005). The available evidence points to variations in exploiting these functions of the Internet by its male and female users: women are more likely to regard it as a tool or means to an end, while men regard it as technology to play with and master (Singh, 2001; Turkle, 1984). For example, Tsai and Lin (2004) found gender di? erences in perceptions of the Internet among adolescents: males perceived its use as a source of enjoyment or Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËtoyÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, while females took a more practical approach and perceived it as a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËtoolÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËtechnologyÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËtourÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (providing the ability to navigate around di? rent sites and people). One area of Internet use that has attracted attention among investigators is interpersonal communication. This is due to the association of functions facilitated by electronic communication with the expressive and communal aspects of femininity, such as the potential for use in self-expression and the facility to communicate readily with family and friends. Thus, it was expected that women might engage with the Internet for such purposes, despite having lower self-e? cacy in relation to computer use. Jackson, Ervin, Gardner and Schmidt (2001) predicted that women would use e-mail more and men use the Web for information more, based on the greater interpersonal orientation of women and greater task orientation of men. This prediction was supported in a large sample of Anglo-American undergraduates, even after computer self-e? cacy, loneliness and depression were controlled for. Wasserman and Richmond-Abbott (2005) found that women use e-mail slightly but not signi? cantly more than men but that men use chat rooms more. A similar ? nding was obtained by Sherman et al. 2000) who found higher participation in chat groups among men, but higher e-mail use among women, and these di? erences remained among successive cohorts of students in the late 1990s, despite generally higher use of the Internet. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s preference for e-mail and menÃ¢â¬â¢s for chat rooms re? ects the di? erent purposes of the two types of communication: e-mail facilitates personal contact with friends and f amily, while chat rooms can be anonymous and provide an arena for the display of power di? erentials present in society more generally (Wasserman Richmond-Abbott, 2005). There are some null ? dings with respect to gender di? erences in e-mail use (e. g. Joiner et al. , 2005; Schumacher Morahan-Martin, 2001), but methodological di? erences between studies may account for such disparities. With respect to other uses of the Internet, there is evidence that some of these too are gendered. Men are more likely to use game web sites (Joiner et al. , 2005; Sherman et al. , 2000; Weiser, 2000), download material (Joiner et al. , 2005; Teo Lim, 2000), browsing or seek specialist information (Jackson et al. , 2001; Joiner et al. , 2005; Teo Lim, 2000; Weiser, 2000). These ? dings provide additional support for the notion that menÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the Internet is more task-oriented than womenÃ¢â¬â¢s, and the tendency for women to use e-mail more accords with their greater interpersonal ori entation (Jackson et al. , 2001). They also support the male Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËtoyÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ versus female Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËtoolÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ distinction (Tsai Lin, 2004). The research literature on gender and the Internet suggests that gender stereotypes play a powerful role in this as in other areas of human activity. Sherman et al. (2000) concluded 2008 A. Colley, J. Maltby / Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 hat we need to appreciate that Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëonline behaviors and attitudes are extensions of o? ine social processes and relationshipsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (p. 893). If that is the case, what impact has the Internet had on the everyday lives of the men and women who use it? With respect to women, Morahan-Martin (2000) concluded that it has brought both promise and peril. The perils are an inevitable consequence of the features that empower Ã¢â¬â freedom of expression and free access to information, since these also permit the ampli? cation of behaviors and perspectives that support the gendered power di? rential. What has been its impact upon men? Is the Internet just another arena in which gender is performed? The empirical research reviewed here has focused upon usage and patterns of usage, rather than impact from the point of view of the user. The purpose of the data analysis reported here is to provide a picture of the impact of the Internet on the everyday lives of men and women. 2. Method 2. 1. Participants and data collection On 24th July 2006, the BBC News website posted a topic for discussion on its Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËHave Your SayÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ discussion section (http://news. bbc. co. k/1/hi/talking_point/default. stm), with the title Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËHas the Internet changed your life? Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. The invitation issued to prospective contributors was to post personal stories about life in the digital age and how the Internet has changed their lives. The majority of contributors to this site used names rather than pseu donyms. There were substantially more postings from men, but the site was monitored until there were 200 postings from female contributors, then these together, with 200 postings randomly selected from among the male contributors were downloaded for analysis. The sample came from approximately 1200 postings during the period 24th July and 4th August. Selection for analysis was only undertaken if the name of the contributor was unambiguously male or female. The majority of the postings (92%) gave the town or country of origin, with 48% of the total postings being from the UK, 25% from the US and Canada, 7% from mainland Europe, and the remainder from the rest of the World. 2. 2. Data coding A content analysis was undertaken to derive category frequencies for analysis. Coding was undertaken based upon content categories derived both from the existing literature and from a sample of the postings. These categories were: 1. Easy and cheap contact with family and friends (through e-mail, instant messaging etc. ) 2. Made new friends (through chat room, discussion forum, etc. ) 3. Renewed contact with old friends/family 4. Met partner/spouse (through chat rooms, dating sites etc. ) 5. International news sites 6. General information acquisition/research 7. Therapeutic/medical advice 8. Support for those with access/mobility problems 9. Entertainment (music, radio, movies, games, hobbies) 10. Travel booking A. Colley, J. Maltby / Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 2009 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Online education Trading Banking Shopping Job enhancement (increased e? ciency/? exibility) Job hunting Assisted career path Job in industry Studying online Socio-political e? ects (global access to information, democratization of information, bringing humanity together) 21. Negative e? cts (pornography, phishing, spam, viruses, bad use of time, addiction, reduction of face-to-face contact, availability of illegal items, proliferation of uncensored information, etc. ) Reliability of coding was established in a 20% sample from the postings. Across all categories this yielded substantial agreement (CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s Kappa = 0. 78), with no individual categories yielding ? gures below the substantial range (Landis Koch, 1977). Gender di? erences w ere then examined using v2 tests. 3. Results Gender di? erences were found in the frequency with which a number of the categories were present in the postings (see Table 1). Chi square tests revealed that a higher proportion Table 1 Frequency of appearance of coding categories by gender Category Contact with family and friends Made new friends Renewed contact with old friends/family Met partner/spouse International news sites General information acquisition/research Therapeutic/medical advice Support for access/mobility problems Entertainment Travel booking Online education Trading Banking Shopping Job enhancement Job hunting Assisted career path Job in industry Socio-political e? ects Negative e? ects * ** % Men 25. 0 10. 0 4. 0 8. 5 9. 5 25. 5 2. 5 4. 0 12. 5 1. 5 2. 0 3. 0 6. 12. 5 6. 0 1. 5 12. 0 12. 0 12. 5 31. 0 % Women 30. 5 20. 5 20. 0 22. 5 19. 5 36. 0 7. 0 5. 0 10. 0 6. 0 6. 5 7. 0 7. 0 20. 5 7. 5 3. 5 4. 0 6. 0 5. 0 21. 0 v2 (1) n. s. 8. 53** 5. 50* 14. 97** 8. 07** 5. 18* 4. 48* n. s. n. s. 5. 60* 4. 98* n. s. n. s. 4. 63* n. s. n. s. 8. 70** 4. 40* 7. 05** 5. 20* p . 05. p . 01. 2010 A. Colley, J. Maltby / Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2 008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s postings mentioned having made new friends, having renewed contact with old friends or family members, having met their partner or spouse online, access to international news sites, being able to ? d information easily, accessing medical or therapeutic advice, studying online, booking travel online and shopping online. A higher proportion of menÃ¢â¬â¢s posting mentioned that the Internet had played a role in their career path, that they had found employment in the industry, positive socio-political e? ects and negative aspects of the Internet. 4. Discussion The ? ndings from this study extend those of existing research on Internet usage by providing information on what men and women perceive as important to them. In some cases the ? ndings accord with the usage data, while in others they do not. With respect to interpersonal communication, our ? ndings show no di? erence in the frequency with which Internet-assisted contact with friends and family was cited as being an aspect of the Internet which had changed the lives of men and women. It is worth noting however, this was the second most frequent category occurring in postings from both sexes. Studies of usage have produced a range of results on gender di? erences in the use of e-mail, although on balance the ? ndings have suggested slightly more or signi? cantly more use by women (e. g. Sherman et al. , 2000; Wasserman Richmond-Abbott, 2005). Our ? dings suggest that the impact upon menÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives may be similar, although of course there may be di? erences in the way in which men and women enact relationships electronically (Boneva, Kraut, Frohlich, 2001). Di? erential impact is evident in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s higher frequency of mention of using Internet sites to make new friends, meet partners and rene w old acquaintances, supporting the notion that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s interpersonal orientation will in? uence their Internet behavior (Jackson et al. , 2001). This ? nding is of interest in the context of menÃ¢â¬â¢s greater usage of chat room sites found by Sherman et al. 2000) and Wasserman and Richmond-Abbott (2005), although our content category was not speci? c to chat rooms alone. It is nevertheless possible that men and women use such sites for different purposes and gain di? erent kinds or rewards from them: our data suggest that women place greater value on the facility to expand their social networks, whereas it is possible that menÃ¢â¬â¢s motives may be more mixed. Wasserman and Richmond-AbbottÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestion that men may be more likely to use them to play interpersonal games and display power may be relevant here, and accords with ? dings that men are more likely to be dishonest in chat room interactions (Whitty Gavin, 2001) and lie about their sex, education, income and occupation (Whitty, 2002). There is a growing literature on the nature of online relationships and the characteristics of those who participate in them (e. g. Cheng, Chan, Tong, 2006; McCown, Fischer, Page, Homant, 2001) and it would be pro? table to examine gender di? erences in motivation to engage in interpersonal behaviors on the Internet in more detail. The most frequently cited positive e? ct overall was the ability to access general information on the Internet, although it was present in a higher proportion of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s than menÃ¢â¬â¢ postings. This result contrasts with the usage ? ndings (Jackson et al. , 2001; Joiner et al. , 2005; Teo Lim, 2000; Weiser, 2000), but supports the notion of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s more practical approach and stronger perception of the Internet as a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËtourÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (Tsai Lin, 2004), which may also explain their more frequent mention of news sites. The womenÃ¢â¬â¢s more practical approach is also evident in their high er frequency of mention of accessing A. Colley, J. Maltby / Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 011 online education, therapeutic advice, booking travel and shopping. However, gender differences were not present in other practical uses such as trading, banking and accessing sources of entertainment. In order to explain the pattern of ? ndings, it is necessary to take into account the broader context of gender di? erences in social role demands and accompanying gender-related traits (e. g. Eagly, 1987; Eagly, Wood, Diekman, 2000), in which the domestic vs. external distinction di? erentiates the focus and interests of women and men. Our data suggest that this distinction may underpin the impact of the Internet on men and women. The Internet in? uences womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives more than menÃ¢â¬â¢s in facilitating new interpersonal interactions, providing access to information from the domestic sphere, and facilitating the purchase of goods, and in? uences menÃ¢â¬â¢s lives more than womenÃ¢â¬â¢s by providing employment or assisting career development. In addition there was greater evidence in the postings from men of awareness of the global impact of the technology, for example, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËNever have so many people been empowered to make a real di? erence and get their message heardÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, (male participant 159). This external awareness is also evident in menÃ¢â¬â¢s more frequent mention of the negative impacts, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËA disadvantage is the anonymity. . .. idiots can spread their madness, insult others etc. all without fear of being uncovered. A 60-year-old suddenly becomes an 18-year-old and vice-versaÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, (male participant 108). The gender di? erence in relation to negative impacts, however, raises several further possibilities. One may be that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s greater interpersonal orientation simply results in a tendency to emphasize the good rather than the bad in responding to the discussion issue on the site. Alternatively, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s more domestic focus may make them less concerned about the broader context and in particular the Ã¢â¬ËperilsÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Internet in relation to power and exploitation (Morahan-Martin, 2000), so ironically, one outcome of the tendency of the Internet to re? ect traditional gender divisions may be to reduce womenÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness that this is the case. There are some limitations associated with using this kind of methodology which are shared with studies of computer-mediated communication in discussion lists (e. g. Herring, 1993), and which relate to the lack of information on the sample. For example, no data on age is available and this may be a relevant variable in relation to impact, since younger users will have grown up with the Internet, while older users will have adapted to its use. However, there is no reason to assume that their distributions among the males and females in the sample should vary and introduce a systematic bias. There is no information available on experience, which may show a gender di? erence since womenÃ¢â¬â¢s widespread use of the Internet has been more recent than that of men. Whether or how length of experience might in? uence perceptions of the impact of the Internet cannot therefore be answered here but would be a suitable topic for further investigation. Finally, the sample is drawn from those who visit a news website rather than users of the Internet in general so could be regarded as representing a part of the population with a particular pro? le of interests. However, news websites are visited by a signi? cant proportion of the population: this was the third largest use of the Internet in a US survey for 2005 (Centre for the Digital Future, 2005) and 35% of a recent sample of UK citizens had accessed on-line news in the last three months (National Statistics, 2006). One signi? cant advantage of using this kind of data is that the areas appearing in the sample of postings are those that spontaneously occur to those submitting them, without prompting from an investigator. Consideration of the advantages and limitations of using the postings as data raises a further gender di? erence, which relates to the acquisition of the quota sample used. There were very substantially more postings on the site from men than women, even when ambiguous 012 A. Colley, J. Maltby / Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 names were discounted. While this may partly re? ect a residual gender gap in access, it also provides a clear illustration of the di? erent uses of the Internet by men and women, which are attributable to socio-cultural factors and therefore likely to remain (Wasserman Richmond-Abbott, 2005). Intere stingly, Fuller (2004) found that use of the Internet by men and women in the US for political activities, such as accessing information was broadly equal but that women were less likely to post to a political discussion group. It seems, therefore, that it is the opportunity to engage in an anonymous form of interpersonal interaction in which knowledge and power may be displayed (Wasserman Richmond-Abbott, 2005) that attracts more male postings to sites like the one studied here. The analysis of this sample of postings has produced a picture of what men and women who use the Internet regard as the areas with major impact on their lives. Our content analysis produced a number of gender di? erences which show that the perceived impact of the Internet broadly re? cts the concerns and motivations associated with menÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s gendered social roles. McGert (2000) argued that viewing online behavior as separate from o? ine behavior produces an unhelpful dichotomy, and in order to understand the impact of Internet technology it is necessary to situate it within the gendered practices that impact on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives. Our data support that view and the conclusion of Sherman et al. (2 000) that gender di? erences in online behavior will continue for as long as they exist more generally. References Bimber, B. (2000). Measuring the gender gap on the Internet. Social Science Quarterly, 81, 868Ã¢â¬â876. Boneva, B. , Kraut, R. , Frohlich, D. (2001). Using e-mail for personal relationships. The di? erence gender makes. American Behavioral Scientist, 45, 530Ã¢â¬â549. Broos, A. (2005). Gender and information and communication technologies (ICT) anxiety: Male self-assurance and female hesitation. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 8, 21Ã¢â¬â31. Center for the Digital Future (2005). 2005 Digital Future Report. Los Angeles: USC Annenberg School. Cheng, G. H. L. , Chan, D. K. S. , Tong, P. Y. (2006). Qualities of online friendships with di? erent gender compositions and durations. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 9, 14Ã¢â¬â21. Cummings, J. N. , Kraut, R. (2002). Domesticating computers and the Internet. Information Society, 18, 221Ã¢â¬â231. Durndell, A. , Haag, Z. (2002). Computer self-e? cacy, computer anxiety, attitudes towards the Internet and reported experience with the Internet, by gender, in an East European sample. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 521Ã¢â¬â535. Durndell, A. , Thomson, K. (1997). Gender and computing: a decade of change? Computers and Education, 28, 1Ã¢â¬â9. Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex di? erences in social behavior: A social role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Eagly, A. H. , Wood, W. , Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex di? erences and similarities: A current appraisal. In T. Eckes H. M. Taunter (Eds. ), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 123Ã¢â¬â174). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Fuller, J. E. (2004). Equality in cyberdemocracy? Guaging gender gaps in on-line civic participation. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 938Ã¢â¬â957. Herring, S. C. (1993). Gender and democracy in computer-mediated communication. Electronic Journal of Communication 3, http://ella. slis. indiana. edu/herring/ejc. txt/. Jackson, L. A. , Ervin, K. S. , Gardner, P. D. , Schmitt, N. (2001). Gender and the Internet: Women communicating and men searching. Sex Roles, 44, 363Ã¢â¬â379. Joiner, R. , Gavin, J. , Du? eld, J. , Brosnan, M. , Crook, C. , Durndell, A. , et al. (2005). Gender, Internet identi? cation, and Internet anxiety: Correlates of Internet use. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 8, 371Ã¢â¬â378. Landis, J. , Koch, G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159Ã¢â¬â174. A. Colley, J. Maltby / Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 2005Ã¢â¬â2013 2013 Liaw, S. -S. (2002). An Internet survey for perceptions of computers and the World Wide Web: Relationship, prediction and di? erence. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 17Ã¢â¬â35. McCown, J. A. , Fischer, D. , Page, R. , Homant, M. (2001). Internet relationships: People who meet people. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 4, 593Ã¢â¬â596. McIlroy, D. , Bunting, B. , Tierney, K. , Gordon, M. (2001). The relation of gender and background experience to self-reported computing anxiety and cognitions. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 21Ã¢â¬â33. McGert, L. -J. (2000). Ã¢â¬ËNobody lives only in cyberspaceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢: Gendered subjectivities and domestic use of the Internet. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 3, 895Ã¢â¬â899. Morahan-Martin, J. (2000). Women and the Internet: Promise and perils. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 3, 683Ã¢â¬â691. National Statistics (2006). Internet access. Households and Individuals. London: Nat ional Statistics. Odell, P. M. , Korgen, K. O. , Schumacher, P. , Delucchi, M. (2000). Internet use among female and male college students. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 3, 855Ã¢â¬â862. Ono, H. , Zavodny, M. (2003). Gender and the Internet. Social Science Quarterly, 84, 111Ã¢â¬â121. Schumacher, P. , Morahan-Martin, J. (2001). Gender, Internet and computer attitudes and experiences. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 95Ã¢â¬â110. Sherman, R. C. , End, C. , Kraan, E. , Cole, A. , Campbell, J. , Birchmeier, Z. , et al. (2000). The Internet gender gap among college students: Forgotten but not gone? Cyberpsychology Behavior, 3, 885Ã¢â¬â894. Singh, S. (2001). Gender and the use of the Internet at home. New Media and Society, 3, 395Ã¢â¬â415. Teo, T. S. H. , Lim, V. K. G. (2000). Gender di? erences in internet usage and task preferences. Behavior and Information Technology, 19, 283Ã¢â¬â295. Todman, J. (2000). Gender di? erences in computer anxiety among university entrants since 1992. Computers and Education, 34, 27Ã¢â¬â35. Tsai, C. -C. , Lin, C. -C. (2004). Taiwanese adolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions and attitudes regarding the Internet: Exploring gender di? erences. Adolescence, 39, 725Ã¢â¬â734. Turkle, S. (1984). The second self: Computers and the human spirit. New York: Simon Shuster. Wasserman, I. M. , Richmond-Abbott, M. (2005). Gender and the Internet: Causes of variation in access, level, and scope of use. Social Science Quarterly, 86, 252Ã¢â¬â270. Weiser, E. B. (2000). Gender di? rences in Internet use patterns and Internet application preferences: A twosample comparison. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 3, 167Ã¢â¬â177. Whitley, B. E. Jr. , (1997). Gender di? erences in computer-related attitudes and behaviour: A meta-analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 13, 1Ã¢â¬â22. Whitty, M. T. (2002). Liar, Liar! An examination of how open, supportive and hones t people are in chat rooms. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 343Ã¢â¬â352. Whitty, M. , Gavin, J. (2001). Age/sex/location: Uncovering the social cues in the development of online relationships. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 4, 623Ã¢â¬â630. How to cite Impact of the Internet in Our Life, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
They back their claim up by providing from the ARIA (Recording Industry Association of America) estimates that six percent of the GAP in the U. S. Is generated from the music industry and from that six percent, a one percent increase in music piracy can cause an additional . 6 decrease in the GAP Is Its sector. They also include examples of programs that have caused the height In piracy such as Aziza, and Morpheme (157). They emphasize the Importance of piracy and need to focus arts to prevent It from furthermore hurting our economy.The authors continue to support their claims by providing even more examples of says pirates are hurting our economy. The article follows an PAP format as seen because of the Social Science review that it is in. Also the end-notes section towards the latter of the article is a key giveaway to the style the authors are trying to use. We will write a custom essay sample on Software and Media Piracy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They want to inform the reader and provide empirical data of the ongoing problem of piracy. Their credibility to the subject can be seen in the amount of data provided. The authors show they have taken the time to properly research the topic.The paper primary uses ethos because throughout the paper the author provides many examples of how piracy is affecting the music industry. These examples coupled with the closing sentence, where they emphasis that it will be necessary for businesses to reevaluate their models as associated with the recording Industry, show the authors perspective on the topic. In this sense It also appeals to logos providing the audience with visual examples like charts from page 164. These two styles allow for the writers to convey a forceful and informative message to their intended reader.Bishop, Jack. Who are the Pirates? The Politics of Piracy, Poverty, and Greed in a Globalizes Music Market. Popular Music Society 27. 1 (2004): 101-106. Academic reach premier. OBESE. Web. 24 June 2010. Bishops article discusses in detail the politics of piracy, poverty, and greed In global music market. He compares the cost differences caused by the price between pirated music versus Orlando. The article points out efforts to push anta-place laws, enticed successfully by the sound recording Industry.He continues to use many sources as pointed out in the works cited section, making it more towards his ere article has a very good organization. Throughout the paper you can see use of headings, footings, and support of evidence for research as pointed out by citing a ease study from the IF (105). In the study, the percentage of price of Cads is compared to the amount paid for by copied Cads. The of over 65% is an estimate that at the time could be more accurate, but in todays world the number seems like it should be way higher. Bishop pushes his article to an audience of, entrepreneurs in the music market industry including the BIG FIVE (BUM, Warner, Universal, Sony, MME) (101), investment agencys, and the general public who fall witness one of the most powerful industries lust decades ago, to now becoming on the verge of take over by PEP sites. The author an be credible in his evidence because his is pursuing a PHD at LOCAL (106), and also because his source information came from an industry standard analysis (IF), and not third party corporations.He used citations throughout the article as well to prove that extensive research had been done on the topic. I feel that thru the authors use of sources and background research, ethos can be seen throughout the paper. A good example of this can be seen on page 102, where he describes intellectual property rights as a battle or Flag that can all be affiliated to stamp out music piracy across the globe. 102). The most overwhelming use of ethos can be seen in the f inal thoughts section, where he concludes many of the finding of research to be outrageous as pointed out by use of many exclamation points. After this he uses a bit of pathos to play on the readers views and beliefs as seen in examples on page 103. Ding, Cheering G. , and N-Ting Lie. Productivity changes of Asian economies by taking Into account software piracy. Economic Inquiry 47. 1 (2009): 135-145. Academic search premier. OBESE. Web. 10 June 2010. For the past two decades, the fast growing Asian economy has emerged as on of he most important economic regions in the world today however its growth has been accompanied with severe piracy.The paper analyzes the productivity changes of some Asian economies by taking into account software piracy. Ding claims ,that En included, the results indicate that productivity growth in Asian developing economies regresses, the productivity in non-Asian industrialized economies improves. (34). Her claim mainly describes how the ever growing topic of piracy is causing an inverse affect to economies around the world. More productivity in evolving means less industry progression in established countries.The paper supports her claims by providing various economic studies from accredited sources that show, piracy has an effective on the progressions countries economies. It places emphasis on various topics and charts making the style sway more towards PAP. The use of these charts in the text can point assist in pointing out this style, along with the use of a reference page. The use of sources throughout the paper can be another tale of the style of writing. The author uses a logos appeal by pointing out references and correlations teen piracy and economic downturn as can be seen in the quote, Past research growth. (144). Corruption and growth are used as an inverted example providing the reader with the necessary background information used to adequately understand the topic of economic software piracy. The PAP form is another key indicator of logos, concluding that scientific research is more fact than persuasion or personal appeal. Leanness, Jell, Stun Bendable, and Tom Vender Bike. The Music Industry on (the) Line? Surviving Music Piracy in a Digital Era. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law cantonal justice 17. (2009): 77-96. Academic search premier. OBESE. Be. 10 June 2010. The article from the European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law Criminal Justice begins with an analysis of the prevalence of piracy in music trade. The analysis extends to cover the affects on global sales of CDC and the expansion of businesses in the future. It points out how such technological developments such as MPH players, pods, and CDR have increased music piracy. The most common forms of music piracy as summarized by the article are internet and CD piracy. It discusses the association between music piracy and organized crime.The profits driven from piracy are used fund such activities like drug smuggling, or human trafficking. The article touches and explores the vulnerabilities of the music industry to include the nature of the product, price, and degree of law enforcement. It suggests that it is necessary for music companies to look for new alternatives to their business models. With the music industry at risk, the article supports its claim to explore new business possibilities, stating, the music industry CD sales have been falling continuously from 2. Billion in 2000 to 1. 8 billion in 2006 (6). The reasons can be numerous and unrealistic, but true. In the second part, the future of the music industry and organized music pirates in the digital era is examined. The ideas and findings presented in this article apply only to those countries and regions where Internet pervasiveness is high. If there is no internet access there is no piracy. One appeal that the article uses in its writing that is a unsurprising is pathos. Piracy is illegal. Things that are illegal place tolls on our moral beliefs.Thru the article many facts about piracy are discussed and presented to the reader in a way hat pulls on their moral beliefs. It tries to convince the wrong doings of piracy by showing the effects and destruction it is having on a once booming industry. The example, legal risks will shift and customers are thus pushed towards organized crime groups. (95) shows how the connection and emotional pervasiveness to combat piracy. Ingram, Jason R. , and Sesame Hindu. Neutralizing Music Piracy: An Empirical Examination. Deviant Behavior 29. 4 (2008): 334-366. Academic Search Premier.OBESE. Web. 24 June 2010. This article by Jason Ingram, describes in detail thru research the viability of employing techniques to neutralize online music piracy. Using data collected from undergraduates from a large Midwestern university, Ingram tries to support his claim conclusions can be made that the article is going to be full of equations and calculations proving Anagrams naturalization theory. This might not be as helpful to rutting a research paper but provides excellent background information as seen in the subtitle Background and Prior Research (336).The article was published by the Taylor and French Group, showing that it has professional ties. Increasing the credibility of article. Ingram uses organization to help his scientific language wrote paper flow more easily. It is scrambled with many technical words that have no real meaning to the topic. These heading and subheadings in each paragraphs make it easier to use the article to your advantage. The articles purpose is to inform readers of the ongoing problem of music piracy and to offer possible solutions to the problem.Ingram projects his paper to an audience of scientists and researchers due to the excessive use of charts and scientific research to support his claim. His style of PAP, allows for his large preferences page to be utilized thoroughly throughout the article. Examples of this can be seen by the use of citations where the authors last name and publication date are used. The article can be used as a reliable source because it shows extensive research and effort put in with collaboration of research references to make a compelling paper to support Anagrams claims.Use of the article should be to point out unusual facts on the topic, found thru the charts of the article. This article has various argumentative appeals throughout, but the majority of the paper is logos and ethos. Logos appeal can be seen with the use of logic researchers to draw conclusions as seen by Ingram concluding, Peer/family or work/ school norms participated in higher levels of piracy (358). In this statement, Ingram is comparing his research to the outcome from prior research done by others.His point is to show that piracy is consistent thru age groups, regardless of the research done. He uses ethos to furthermore support this point and his credibility as an author by placing various subtopics of his research on naturalization. He uses past research to support his claims from scientists such as Marina and Copes, both scholarly acclaimed researchers (341). Morton, Neil A. , and Xenophobe Softer. Intention to Commit Online Music Piracy and Its Antecedents: An Empirical Investigation. Structural Equation Modeling 15. 3 12008): 491-512. Academic search premier. OBESE. Be. 24 June 2010. Authors Morton and Softener wrote the article to show a research model that Ninth show consumers attitude, norms, and perception towards media piracy 992). Their claim is that online piracy of copyrighted digital music has become rampant as internet technologies and businesses have advanced. They are suffering ND will keep suffering from piracy unless steps and actions are taken to combat it. Rhea support their claim with research done with a random question-air of 216 respondents hoping to find out what makes us as consumers to commit online music crime (493).The paper is very organized and flows very well. The authors make use of PAP style due to extensive references and research citations in the paper which adds ease of use versus an MEAL style document. Their article is full off lot of facts The work claims to cover many different view points as can be seen in the long list of references. It shows they put the time and effort to make a good and credible paper. Using that scope, they project the article to other scholarly professionals in the industry hoping their research with provoke the possible change to copyrighting laws (496).It can also be pushed to the general public with the intention to better understand the problems caused by electronic piracy. It draws its subject material and properly cites them throughout the paper making reliability of the text increase. Father credibility can be drawn from Acknowledgment section, where the articles credentials are stated. I feel that the authors used both ethos along with pathos mostly in the article. An example ethos can be drawn from a literary review done by Teeter and Douglas. In the review the authors describe undergraduates as willing or motivated to pay for music to avoid prosecution (492).His point shows that credible research had been done to show a very volatile topic such as music piracy, coming face to face in todays society with evermore progression of of the internet to possibly becoming an online epidemic. In turn, they use pathos to play on the audiences belief that stealing is wrong, whether online or not. Use of this can seen by the consistent labeling of piracy as a illicit, selfish, and unfair practice (495). He wants the audience to know that piracy is wrong and persuade their primitive beliefs of stealing to help combat the problem. PC Software piracy poses challenges to cyber security. Computer Security Update 10. 6 (2009): 3-7. Academic search premier. OBESE. Web. 10 June 2010. The article focuses on the issues concerning increasing software piracy. Piracy poses very high challenges to security in the U. S. , making efforts of the government to battle the massive enterprise very pricey and difficult. It further states that despite the effort of the U. S. Government in battling piracy, its negative impact has gone beyond the software industry as well as in the information technology sector.Piracy now affects everything from CD to Software sales around the world. The article shows how economies are effected behind the scenes by stating, for every $1 of software sold in a country, there is another $3 to $4 of revenues for local IT service and distribution firms. (4). The authors connection is from the loss of revenues to piracy, countless number of Jobs and positions are lost. As the article continues, the claim to global and economic downturn becomes more real with an estimate that if piracy dropped 10 points, 600,000 information technology Jobs could be created.The article fails to follow a specific outline but favors MEAL. The writing style can be similar in ways due to citations but lacks all proper punctuation. With backgrounds from many sources the paper presents its self an accredited piece of text. The paper uses a more logos appeal along with a bit of pathos. Logos can be drawn by the author continuously referring to many facts and assumptions associated with piracy, but aids its self to appeal to that of pathos by playing on the emotional appeal of the reader. It portrays to the reader the seriousness of piracy future prevent piracy.An example pathos, he describes piracy as a Drug or infection that is hindering good nature d consumers from the accessibility they have of their software material (5). It tries to persuade the reader on their belief that stealing is bad. Spring, Tom. E-Book Piracy: Is Your Download Legitimate?. PC World 28. 3 (2010): 23-25. Academic search premier. OBESE. Web. 10 June 2010. The article discusses the increasing problems caused and associated with e-book piracy. Springs claim is that with the ever changing technologies, the challenges faced with protecting our publishers work, many consumers with fall victim to counterfeit e-books.He backs his claims by providing quotes from experts such as Deed McCoy of the Association of American Publishers, a trade organization representing major U. S. Book publishers. McCoy states that, year-to-year increase n illicitly available e-book titles is unknown, showing that since a such new technological advancement as the Kindle even books are now being copied online. He continues his support in showing knowledge in the field with examples of industry advancements such as the, Amazon Kindle, Sony Reader, and Barnes Nobles Nook (23).These products are very new to the market increasing the demand for piracy of their material due to high product cost. E-Book piracy is not in the same realm as music piracy, but an increasingly prevalent topic to keep an eye on. The article tends to follow up with no noticeable style because of being an editorial but tends to lend more towards MEAL due to the more informative approach. Overall the paper leans towards the pathos and ethos appeal. Throughout pathos s used to inform and persuade the reader into believing that E-book piracy is an issue.A good example can be drawn from the quote, muff might, for example, earn some quick Farm-vile cash by answering a brief survey (24). In this quote the author draws a conclusion from the impulsiveness for users to follow online surveys for an illicit e-book. He is trying to persuade the user away from this temptation. Ethos is also found throughout the paper with the writer putting emphasis on the subject as if he once fell victim to illicit e-books. Conclusions can be made from the background research and knowledge on the topic.
Sunday, March 29, 2020
An examination of the factors that give Johnson Johnson, Co. a rational organizational structure. The paper defines rational organizations as those which seek to develop structure and coordinate their activities in response to technical requirements and in relation to the complexity of the task environment they face. The paper shows how Johnson Johnson has established its mission and vision by putting in place a rational organizational structure, defining reporting relationships, establishing a project management methodology and infrastructure, developing a communications plan in support of the groups global leadership role, creating position descriptions, and recruiting. A history of the company is also discussed. Johnson Johnson attributes the success of its organization structure to its management of each separate part as part of a functioning, single entity. By grouping its global affiliates into three business segments and then overlaying each segment and its affiliates with a transparent structure of alignment, Johnson Johnson has created a unique organization structure. We will write a custom essay sample on Johnson Johnson as a Rational Organization or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Is the New 2016 SAT a Reaction to the Common Core SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips You know the SAT is changing. But were those changes driven by the Common Core? And why would that matter? Read on to find out - and to be prepared for the new SAT in 2016. The New 2016 SAT and Common Core As you probably know, the SAT is undergoing a pretty dramatic change in 2016. You may be wondering: is this change caused by the new Common Core standards? Although the College Board denies this connection, the signs point to yes. For one thing, David Coleman, the current head of the College Board, was previously part of the English Language Arts committee of the Common Core. The media often refers to him as an Ã¢â¬Å"architect of the Common Core.Ã¢â¬ So it's not too surprising that he would bring the Common Core philosophy to the College Board, leading to an SAT overhaul. In you're interested, you can read more about how David Coleman specifically drove the SAT changes, and how his work designing the Common Core was a big motivator. However, College Board doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t explicitly tie the new SAT to Common Core since the Common Core is very controversial in some places. After all, the College Board still wants the SAT to be a universal college admissions test. This is why the College Board barely mentions the Common Core in their giant, 200-page document about the new SAT. However, an Education Week analysis convincingly shows Common Core standards seem to have driven the new SAT changes. Check out a summary of that analysis below: Concept Common Core-inspired Change Citing Evidence Not tested on the old SAT. The new SAT has evidence-based reading and writing multiple choice questions, which lines up with Common Core goals of teaching students to cite specific textual evidence. Reading Passage Sources The old SAT's Reading and Writing passages didn't represent a range of academic disciplines. Now the Reading and Writing passages come from a wide range of topics, including science, history, and social studies. This matches the Common Core's push for English classes to include more non-literary texts. Vocabulary The old SAT tested obscure vocabulary that required students to be familiar with relatively rare words. The new SAT is focusing on more practical words, matching the Common Core's goal for students to be ready to use general academic and domain-specific words. The Essay The old SAT allowed students to draw on their background and experiences as evidence. The new SAT essay measures your ability to analyze evidence and explain how an author builds an argument, reflecting the Common Core's goal to teach students to gather, evaluate, and properly cite evidence. Range of Math Topics The old SAT drew from a wide range of high school math concepts. The new SAT draws from a smaller range of topics that College Board believes will best show student's readiness for college-level math, including a greater emphasis on Algebra and real-life applications. This speaks to the Common Core's goal to cover fewer math topics in greater depth. Calculators The old SAT allowed calculators on all math sections, leaving it up to students to decide when to use them. The new SAT has a "No Calculator" section. This may be to push students to only use tools when necessary, which is a Common Core goal. Analyzing text and data There was no data analysis on old SAT, which mean there were no graphs or tables in In the Reading and Writing passages. The new SAT will include both text and data for analysis, which matches the Common Core goal for students to be able to understand scientific and technical texts. Founding documents The old SAT usually used texts students hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t encountered before, including obscure short stories and poems. The new SAT will include a passage drawn from a US founding document or historical text, like the Declaration of Independence or KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I I Have a Dream" speech, which directly matches up with the grade 9-10 Common Core standard that calls for students to Ã¢â¬Å"analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance.Ã¢â¬ Puzzle-like Math Questions The old SAT included math questions that relied on students to use logic to solve them, rather than applying Algebra or Geometry. The new SAT will remove these logic-based, puzzle-like questions in favor of questions that specifically test Algebra, Geometry, and other math concepts. This speaks to the Common Core's call for math to have direct real-world applications. Even if College Board doesn't say so explicitly, it seems pretty clear that many of the new SAT changes bring the test in line with Common Core. Let's take a look at what that means in action. Examples of Common Core-Style SAT Questions What do the Common Core-inspired SAT changes actually look like? We will walk through an SAT Reading and an SAT Math example to show you. To begin with, the new SAT Reading has added questions that ask you to use evidence. The old SAT never asked you for evidence directly. See the example below: You would definitely need to read and understand the passage to get this question right, but the old SAT wouldn't ask you how you know that, say, B is the right answer as opposed to E. But on the new SAT, there will be follow-up questions that ask for evidence, reflecting the Common Core goal to have students use direct evidence from their reading. Check out an example: Not only do you have to figure out "the reason Jordan draws a distinction between two types of "parties,"" but you need to know exactly which part of the passage explains why the answer you pick is correct. This is a Common Core-inspired change! We can see evidence of the Common Core affecting SAT Reading. But what about SAT Math? The old SAT included math questions that relied on students to use logic to solve them, rather than applying Algebra or Geometry, like this question below: This question doesn't explicitly test algebra or geometry. Rather, it tests a student's logic skills. You could solve it by sketching a calendar and assigning certain families certain dates, working until you figure out the date that only one family stayed at the hotel. It probably looksquite different than the problems you normally see in math class. (Incidentally, the LSAT, the test you have to take to apply to law school, has a whole section with questions like these. Future lawyers take note!) The new SAT will remove these logic-based, puzzle-like questions in favor of questions that specifically test Algebra, Geometry, and other math concepts. The new SAT will also include more problems that model real-world situations using Algebra, Geometry, and the like. This speaks to the Common Core's call for math to have direct real-world applications. Check out the example below: This problem models a real world situation: counts of Florida manatees. But it also tests a statistics concept: a scatterplot graph with a line of best fit. To get this question right, you have to be familiar with statistics (and be able to read a graph) andunderstand the context of the problem and how it affects the graph. This example reflects how the SAT is changing to reflect the Common Core goals for math: not only including more real-world applications but also refocusing on core math concepts. The PSAT is Changing Too ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also worth noting that the practice SAT (a.k.a. the PSAT) is changing as well, so it will be fairly similar to the new SAT. In other words, the PSAT changes also seem to be affected by the Common Core. In addition to changing the PSAT, College Board has created more tests Ã¢â¬â the PSAT 10 and the PSAT 8/9 Ã¢â¬â to bring SAT-style testing to younger students. PSAT 10 and PSAT 8/9 also have similar question types and goals to the new SAT, though they're less difficult. The creation of more tests for more age levels reflects a Common Core goal to measure progress more often. And the fact that College Board has made these tests shows they hope that schools choosing among the different tests for Common Core will choose College Board and the PSAT (as opposed to ACT Aspire, PARCC, or Smarter Balanced). If you will be taking the PSAT this year, and want an idea of what's like, you can get a PSAT practice test here. But you shouldn't stress over the PSAT. Even if your school is implementing the PSAT 8/9 or PSAT 10, these tests are just for practice ("practice" is right there in the test name!). Unless you have your heart set on a National Merit Scholarship, save your energy for the real SAT. So How Should I Prepare for the New SAT? You may be wondering how to prepare for the new SAT, since given the analysis above, it seems to be changing a lot to reflect the Common Core! First of all, if your school has implemented Common Core, what youÃ¢â¬â¢re learning in school will be more relevant to the SAT than it was in the past. The SAT used to test things including obscure vocabulary and logic-based math puzzles that were pretty far away from what you learned in school. With the new SAT, itÃ¢â¬â¢s more likely that what you learn in school will actually help you prepare. If you live in one of the green states, that means your state has adopted Common Core, which should help you study for the new SAT. But rather than worrying about how the Common Core is changing the SAT, we suggest you just focus on studying for the new SAT itself. Even though the SAT is changing the way it asks certain questions and trying to be more modern, at the end of the day, itÃ¢â¬â¢s still a multiple-choice test. You can improve your score if you put in some serious study hours and make sure you're prepared. Furthermore, the new SAT isn't a radically different test like ACTÃ¢â¬â¢s Aspire testing or the PARCC/Smarter Balanced Common Core Tests. Those tests include short answer questions, performance tasks, and sorting questions, to name just a few changes). We have written a complete guide about how to study for the new SAT, and have more specific advice on studying for new SAT vocabulary. Butmost important isour complete guide to the New SAT in 2016 Ã¢â¬â if you can understand the test, regardless of what caused it to change, you can do well. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? While the ACT is undergoing some changes to reflect Common Core, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not as dramatic. Find out if you should consider taking the ACT instead of the new 2016 SAT. If you decide to take the ACT, learn about the best prep books and get access to free online practice tests. If you decide to take the new SAT, get a preliminary guide to studying for it. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Campaign Evaluation - Essay Example It incorporates specialized skills and expertise in the practice to incorporate and navigate through media relations and public relations without infringing on the practices of each continuum. Public relations relies on the critical and practical tools of media release, media conference and media kits. Further, these tools also combine with the management skills in advising bout the most preferable course of practice or action to follow. Thus, there is need to understand the role of media relations and public relations accordingly in facilitating the establishment of a successful campaign (Delahaye, 2011, p 18). A successful campaign meets the evaluation criteria that encompass the residual practices from media and public relations as facilitating continuums to the topic of campaign evaluation. Media has the potential to evolve the practice of public relations accordingly to reflect a global strategy that features interactive and symmetrical dialogue that is socially responsible. In modeling the two fields, various theoretical approaches are key to facilitate the processes of campaign strategy development and execution (Delahaye, 2011, p 23). Notably, the initial models that define public relations in this context entail the following. First, is the press agency, which constitutes the publicity of the campaign in the process. The fundamental element of publicity develops in the context of evaluating campaign since; publicity uses persuasion and manipulation in the pursuit to influence the audience towards behaving according to the organization objectives and desires (De Beer & Merrill, 2004, p 43). Thus, the audience in this sense relies on the ability of the media agency to develop strategic message that persuades and manipulates the audience accordingly to incline toward s the message of the press agency. Thus, public relations possessing this fundamental element, media relations